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Invitation to Research – References

Roger Clarke

Principal, Xamax Consultancy Pty Ltd, Canberra

Visiting Fellow, Department of Computer Science, Australian National University

Draft of 24 November 2002

© Xamax Consultancy Pty Ltd, 2002

This document is at

This document is designed to complement and



This document provides references to support the seminar entitled 'Invitation to Research'. The structure reflects the sequence of presentation of that seminar.

Key Insights from the Philosophy of Science
Aspects of Ontology and Epistemology

Cherry C. (1957) 'On Human Communication' MIT Press, 1957

Eco U. (1980) 'The Name of the Rose' Harcourt, 1980

Johnson P. & Duberley J. (2000) 'Understanding Management Research: An Introduction to Epistemology' Sage, 2000

The Nature and Process of Science

Koestler A. (1959) 'The Sleepwalkers' Various Editions, Hutchinson 1959, Penguin 1964

Kuhn T. (1962) 'The Structure of Scientific Revolutions' Uni. of Chicago Press, 1st Edition 1962, 2nd Edition 1970

Popper K.R. (1959) 'The Logic of Scientific Discovery', Basic Books, 1959

Popper K.R. (1968) 'Conjecture and Refutations' Harper & Row, 1968

Alternative Research Approaches and Traditions

Gadamer,H-G. (1976) 'Philosophical hermeneutics' Uni. of California Press, 1976

Holdaway E.A. (1997) 'A Comparison of Australian and North American PhDs' ANU Graduate School Occasional Paper GS98/1, at

Keen P. (1980) 'MIS Research: Reference Disciplines and a Cumulative Tradition' McLean E. (Ed.), Proc. 1st Int'l Conf. Info. Sys. 1980, 9-18

Lee A. S. (1991) 'Integrating Positivist and Interpretive Approaches to Organizational Research' Organization Science 2 (1991) 342-365

Meredith J.R., Raturi A., Amoako-Gyampah K. & Kaplan B. 'Alternative Research Paradigms in Operations' Journal of Operations Management, 8, 2 (1989) 297-325

Critical Research

Alvesson M. & Willmott H. (eds.) (1992) 'Critical Management Studies' Sage, 1992

Alvesson M. & Deetz S.A. (2000) 'Doing Critical Management Research' Sage, 2000

Held D. (1980) 'Introduction to Critical Theory' Uni. of California Press, 1980

Research Techniques - Comprehensive Text-Books

Brewerton P.M. & Millward L.J. (2001) 'Organizational Research Methods: A Guide for Students and Researchers' Sage, 2001

Curran J. & Blackburn R. (2001) 'Researching the Small Enterprise' Sage, 2001

Gill J. & Johnson P. (2002) 'Research Methods for Managers' 3rd Edition, Sage, 2002

Easterby-Smith M., Thorpe R. & Lowe A, (2002) 'Management Research: An Introduction' Sage, 2002

Neuman W.L. (2000) 'Social Research Methods - Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches' 4th ed., Allyn and Bacon, 2000

Remenyi D.S.J., Williams B., Money A. & Swartz E. (1998) 'Doing Research in Business and Management: An Introduction to Process and Method' Sage, 1998

Stone E. (1978) 'Research Methods in Organisational Behavior' Scott Foresman, Glenview IL, 1978

Usunier J.-C. (1998) 'International and Cross-Cultural Management Research' Sage, 1998

Research Techniques - Quantitative Techniques

Antonius R. (2002) 'Interpreting Quantitative Data with SPSS' Sage, 2002

Emory W.C. (1985) 'Business Research Methods' Irwin, 3rd Ed.

Foster J.J. (2001) 'Data Analysis Using SPSS for Windows Versions 8 - 10 : A Beginner's Guide' Sage, 2001

Hoyle R.H. (ed.) (1999) 'Statistical Strategies for Small Sample Research' Sage, 1999

Kahane L.H. (2001) 'Regression Basics' Sage, 2001

Kerr A.W., Hall H.K. & Kozub A.A. (2002) 'Doing Statistics With SPSS' Sage, 2002

Kervin J. (1992) 'Methods for Business Research' Harper Collins

Turner J.R. & Thayer J. (20010 'Introduction to Analysis of Variance : Design, Analysis, & Interpretation' Sage, 2001

Research Techniques - Qualitative Techniques

This list is much lengthier than that for Quantitative Techniques. That's not because one is necessarily more important than the other. It's because Qualitative Techniques are of more recent origin, they are less stable, and they are more diverse.

Barley S. R. (1990) 'Images of imaging: Notes on doing longitudinal field work' Organization Science 1, 3 (1990) 220-247

Boyatzis R.E. (1998) 'Transforming Qualitative Information : Thematic Analysis and Code Development' Sage, 1998

Crabtree B.F. & Miller W.L. (1999) 'Doing Qualitative Research' Sage, 1999

Creswell J.W. (1998) 'Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design: Choosing Among Five Traditions' Sage, 1998

Degenne A. & Forsé M. (1999) 'Introducing Social Networks' Sage, 1999

Denzin N.K. & Lincoln Y.S. (eds.) (1994) 'Handbook of Qualitative Research' Sage 1994

Denzin N.K. & Linkoln Y.D. (eds.) (2000) 'Rethinking Critical Theory and Qualitative Research' , 2nd Ed., Sage, 2000

Flick U. (2002) 'An Introduction to Qualitative Research' Sage, 2002

Gahan C. & Hannibal M. (1998) 'Doing Qualitative Research Using QSR NUD*IST' Sage, 1998

Hirschman E.C. & Holbrook M.B. (1992) 'Postmodern Consumer Research : The Study of Consumption as Text' Sage, 1992

Huberman A.M. & Miles M.B. (eds.) (2002) 'The Qualitative Researcher's Companion' Sage, 2002

Marshall C. & Rossman G.B. (1989) 'Designing Qualitative Research' Sage, 1989

Miles M.B. & Huberman A.M. (1984) 'Qualitative Data Analysis: A Sourcebook of New Methods' Sage, 1984

Moustakas C. (1994) 'Phenomenological Research Methods' Sage, 1994

Popping R. (2000) 'Computer-Assisted Text Analysis' Sage, 2000

Silverman D. (2001) 'Interpreting Qualitative Data : Methods for Analysing Talk, Text and Interaction' Sage, 2001

Symon G. & Cassell C. (eds.) (1998) 'Qualitative Methods and Analysis in Organizational Research: A Practical Guide' Sage, 1998

Van Maanen J. (Ed.) (1979) 'Qualitative Methodology' Sage, Beverly Hills

Yanow D. (1999) 'Conducting Interpretive Policy Analysis' Sage, 1999

Specific Research Techniques
Non-Empirical Techniques
* Literature Review

Bailey K.D. (1994) 'Typologies and Taxonomies : An Introduction to Classification Techniques' Sage, 1994

Cooper H.M. (1998) 'Synthesizing Research : A Guide for Literature Reviews', Sage, 3rd Ed., 1998

ó Dochartaigh N. (2001) 'The Internet Research Handbook : A Practical Guide for Students and Researchers in the Social Sciences' Sage, 2001

Fink A. (1998) 'Conducting Research Literature Reviews: From Paper to the Internet', Sage, 1998

Girden E.R. (1996) 'Evaluating Research Articles from Start to Finish' Sage, 1996

Hart C. (2001) 'Doing a Literature Search : A Comprehensive Guide for the Social Sciences', Sage, 2001

* Futurism, especially Delphi Rounds

Armstrong J. S. (1985) 'Long-Range Forecasting: From Crystal Ball to Computer' Wiley, 1985

Dalkey N. C. (1963) 'An Experimental Application of the Delphi Method the Use of Experts' Mngt Sci. 9(3) 458-467

Linstone H. & Turoff M. (1975) 'The Delphi Method: Techniques and Applications' Addison-Wesley, 1975

Schmidt R. (1997) 'Managing Delphi Surveys Using Nonparametric Statistical Techniques' Decision Sciences 28(3) 763-774

* Scenarios

Daum J. (2001) 'How scenario planning can significantly reduce strategic risks and boost value in the innovation chain', New Economy Analyst Report, Sept 08, 2001at

Shaw G., Brown R., & Bromiley P. (1998) 'Strategic stories: How 3M is rewriting business planning' Harv. Bus. Rev, (May-June 1998) 41-50

Schwartz P. 1991' 'The Art of the Long View' Doubleday, 1991

Van der Heijden K. (1996) 'Scenarios: The art of strategic conversation' Wiley, 1996

Wack P. (1985) ' Scenarios, uncharted waters ahead' Harv, Bus. Rev. (Sep-Oct 1985) 73-90

* Game-Playing / Role-Playing

Crookall D.A. & Arai K. (1995) 'Simulations and Gaming across Disciplines and Cultures' Sage, 1995

Scientific Techniques
* Laboratory Experimentation

Campbell D.T. & Stanley J.C. (1963) 'Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Designs for Research' Houghton Mifflin, 1963

Field A. & Hole G.J. (2002) 'How to Design and Report Experiments' Sage, 2002

* Field Experimentation and Quasi-Experimental Designs

Campbell D.T. & Stanley J.C. (1963) 'Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Designs for Research' Houghton Mifflin, 1963

Cook T.D. & Campbell D.T. (1979). 'Quasi-experimentation: design and analysis issues for field settings' Houghton Mifflin, 1979

* Forecasting

Berndt E. (1991) 'The Practice of Econometrics, Classic and Comtemporary' Addison-Wesley, 1991

Interpretivist Techniques
* Focus Group

Bloor M., Frankland J., Thomas M. & Robson K. (2000) 'Focus Groups in Social Research' Sage, 2000

Fern E.F. (2001) 'Advanced Focus Group Research' Sage, 2001

Greenbaum T.L. (2000) 'Moderating Focus Groups : A Practical Guide for Group Facilitation' Sage, 2000

Krueger R.A. (1997) 'Analyzing and Reporting Focus Group Results' Sage, 1997

Vaughn S., Schumm J.S. & Sinagub J.M. (1996) 'Focus Group Interviews in Education and Psychology' Sage, 1996

* Action Research

Coghlan D. & Brannick T. (2000) 'Doing Action Research in Your Own Organization' Sage, 2000

Greenwood D.J. & Levin M. (1998) 'Introduction to Action Research : Social Research for Social Change' Sage, 1998

Reason P. & Bradbury H. (2000) 'Handbook of Action Research : Participative Inquiry and Practice' Sage, 2000

Susman G.L. & Evered R.D. (1978) 'An Assessment of the Scientific Merits of Action Research' Admin. Sci. Qtly 23,4 (December 1978) 582-603

* Ethnography

See section on Field Study, below.

* Grounded Theory

Goulding C. (2002) 'Grounded Theory : A Practical Guide for Management, Business and Market Researchers' Sage, 2002

Locke K.D. (2001) 'Grounded Theory in Management Research' Sage, 2001

Strauss A. & Corbin J. (1998) 'Basics of Qualitative Research : Techniques and Procedures for Developing Grounded Theory' 2nd Ed., Sage, 1998

Strauss A. & Corbin J. (eds.) (1997) 'Grounded Theory in Practice' Sage, 1997

The Boundary Techniques Between Scientific and Interpretivist
* Field Study

Atkinson P., Coffey A., Delamont S., Lofland J. & Lofland L. (eds.) (2001) 'Handbook of Ethnography' Sage, 2001

Fetterman D.M. (1998) 'Ethnography : Step by Step' Sage, 1998

Grills S. (ed.) (1998) Doing Ethnographic Research : Fieldwork Settings' Sage, 1998

Huber G.P. & can de Ven A.H. (eds.) (1995) 'Longitudinal Field Research Methods : Studying Processes of Organizational Change' Sage, 1995

Schwartzman H.B. (1993) 'Ethnography in Organizations' Sage, 1993

Taylor S. (ed.) (2001) 'Ethnographic Research : A Reader' Sage, 2001

* Questionnaire-Based Survey

Bourque L.B. & Fielder E.P. (1995) 'How to Conduct Self-Administered and Mail Surveys' Sage, 1995

Foddy W. (1993) 'Constructing Questions for Interviews and Questionnaires: Theory and Practice in Social Research' Cambridge U.P., 1993

Fowler F.J. (2001) 'Survey Research Methods' 3rd Ed., Sage, 2001

Sapsford R. (1999) 'Survey Research' Sage, 1999

* Interview-Based Survey

Arksey H. & Knight P.T. (1999) 'Interviewing for Social Scientists : An Introductory Resource with Examples' Sage, 1999

Foddy W. (1993) 'Constructing Questions for Interviews and Questionnaires: Theory and Practice in Social Research' Cambridge U.P., 1993

Fowler F.J. (2001) 'Survey Research Methods' 3rd Ed., Sage, 2001

Frey J.H. & Mertens Oishi S. (1995) 'How to Conduct Interviews by Telephone and in Person' Sage, 1995

Gubrium J.F. & Holstein J.A. (eds.) (2001) 'Handbook of Interview Research : Context and Method' Sage, 2001

Kvale S. (1996) 'InterViews : An Introduction to Qualitative Research Interviewing' Sage, 1996

Lavrakas P.J. (1993) 'Telephone Survey Methods : Sampling, Selection, and Supervision' 2nd Ed., Sage, 1993

Sapsford R. (1999) 'Survey Research' Sage, 1999

* Case Study

Gomm R., Hammersley M. & Foster P. (eds.) (2000) 'Case Study Method : Key Issues, Key Texts' Sage, 2000

Travers M. (2001) 'Qualitative Research through Case Studies' Sage, 2001

Stake R.E. (1995) 'The Art of Case Study Research' Sage, 1995

Yin R. (1984) 'Case Study Research: Design and Methods' 2nd Ed., Sage, 1984

* Secondary Research

Stewart D.W. & Kamins M.A. (1993) 'Secondary Research : Information Sources and Methods' 2nd Ed., Sage, 1993

Engineering Techniques

Ramesh V., Glass R.L. & Vessey I. (2002) 'Research in Computer Science: An Empirical Study' Kelley School Technical Report TR105-1, at

* Construction

Liebrand W.B.G., Nowak A. & Hegselmann R. (eds.) (1998) 'Computer Modelling of Social Processes' Sage, 1998


* Evaluation and Testing


* Simulation

Mooney C.Z. (1997) 'Monte Carlo Simulation' Sage, 1997

Taber C.S. & Timpone R.J. (1996) 'Computational Modeling' Sage, 1996

The Research Process
The Research Proposal

Punch K.F. (2000) 'Developing Effective Research Proposals' Sage, 2000

UCB (2001) 'Dissertation Proposal Workshop - Nuts and Bolts' Institute of International Studies, Uni. of California, Berkeley, at

UCB (2001) 'The Research Question' Dissertation Proposal Workshop, Institute of International Studies, Uni. of California, Berkeley, at

The Formulation of Research Questions


Devising a Research Method

Creswell J. (1994) 'Research Design: Qualitative & Quantitative Approaches' Sage, 1994

Galliers R.D. & Land F.F. (1987) 'Choosing Appropriate Information Systems Research Methodologies' Commun. ACM 21,12 (December 1987) 900-902

Jick T.D. (1979) 'Mixing Qualitative and Quantitative Methods: Triangulation in Action' Administrative Science Quarterly 24, 4 (1979) 602-611

Lee A.S. (1991) 'Integrating Positivist and Interpretive Approaches to Organizational Research' Organization Science 2, 4 (1991) 342-365

Tashakkori A. & Teddlie C. (1998) 'Mixed Methodology : Combining Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches' Sage, 1998

The Discipline and Skill of Academic Writing

Glatthorn A.A. (1998) 'Writing the Winning Dissertation : A Step-by-Step Guide' Sage, 1998

Golden-Biddle K. & Locke K.D. (1997) 'Composing Qualitative Research : Crafting Theoretical Points from Qualitative Research' Sage, 1997

Holliday A. (2001) 'Doing and Writing Qualitative Research' Sage, 2001

Wolcott H.F. (2001) 'Writing Up Qualitative Research' Sage, 2001


WARNING: The following reference is typical within the Australian doctoral tradition. Responsibilities vary greatly between national traditions:

ANU (2002) 'Guidelines for Supervision and Candidature of Doctoral Research Students ', Australian National University, at



The Ethics of Research

ANU (2002) 'Guidelines on Research', s.4.7 of Postgraduate Research Guide: Research and the Thesis, Australian National University, at

Davison R. & Kock N. (2001) 'Professional Ethics', at

de Laine M. (2000) 'Fieldwork, Participation and Practice : Ethics and Dilemmas in Qualitative Research' Sage, 2000

Mauthner M., Birch M., Jessop J. & Miller T. (2002) 'Ethics in Qualitative Research' Sage, 2002

Sieber J.E. (1992) 'Planning Ethically Responsible Research : A Guide for Students and Internal Review Boards' Sage, 1992

The Research Product
Guidelines for Dissertations

ANU (2002) 'Thesis Requirements - PhD', s.4.11.3 of Postgraduate Research Guide: Research and the Thesis, Australian National University, at

UCan (2001) 'Formatting the Thesis' Uni. of Canberra, at

Guidelines for References and Citations

ANU (2002) 'Organising Your References Using EndNote', at

Deakin (2002) 'Referencing Styles', Deakin University, at

Lamp J. (2002) 'Citation Styles for Electronic References', Deakin University, at

Tan F.B. (2002) 'EndNote Resources for the Information Systems Discipline', Uni. of Auckland, at

Guidelines for Research Papers

CCC (2002) 'A Guide for Writing Research Papers based on Styles Recommended by The American Psychological Association', Capital Community College, at

Cummings L. & Frost P. (eds.) (1995) 'Publishing in the Organizational Sciences' 2nd Ed, Sage, 1995

Foss N.J. (2002) 'Publishing Strategies and Tactics', Introduction at, Body at

Lee A.S. (1995) 'Reviewing a Manuscript for Publication' Journal of Operations Management, 13, 1 (July 1995) 87-92, at

Doctoral Candidature

Phillips E.M. & Pugh D.S. (1994) 'How To Get a PhD: A handbook for students and their supervisors' Open University Press, Buckingham/Philadelphia, 2nd Ed., 1994

Davis G.B. & Parker C.A. (1997) 'Writing the Doctoral Dissertation: A Systematic Approach' 1997

desJardins M. (2001) 'How to Succeed in Postgraduate Study' Uni. of Canberra, at

Meloy J.M. (1999?) 'Writing the Qualitative Dissertation: Understanding by Doing', 1999?

Piantanida M. & Garman N. (1999) 'The Qualitative Dissertation : A Guide for Students and Faculty' Sage, 1999

Pratt W. (1997) 'Graduate School Survival Guide', at

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