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Roger Clarke's 'Model of Id and Authentication

A Sufficiently Rich Model of (Id)entity, Authentication and Authorisation
Supplementary Materials

Version of 15 February 2010

This is a supporting document to

Roger Clarke **

© Xamax Consultancy Pty Ltd, 2008-10

Available under an AEShareNet Free
for Education licence or a Creative Commons 'Some
Rights Reserved' licence.

This document is at

The Test-Applications of the Model are documented in

The accompanying Glossary is at

The List of Sources, including many references, is below.

A Slide-Set to accompany presentations is at


Clarke R. (1987) ''Just Another Piece of Plastic for Your Wallet': The Australia Card' Prometheus 5,1 (June 1987), at

Clarke R. (1988) 'Information Technology and Dataveillance' Commun. ACM 31,5 (May 1988) 498-512, at

Clarke R. (1992) 'The Resistible Rise of the Australian National Personal Data System' Software L. J. 5,1 (January 1992), at

Clarke R. (1993) 'Computer Matching and Digital Identity' Presentation at Computers, Freedom & Privacy (CFP'93) in San Francisco, Xamax Consultancy Pty Ltd, February 1993, at

Clarke R. (1994a) 'The Digital Persona and its Application to Data Surveillance' The Information Society 10,2 (June 1994), at

Clarke R. (1994b) 'Dataveillance: Delivering '1984' Chapter 4 in Green L. & Guinery R. (Eds.) 'Framing Technology: Society, Choice and Change' Allen & Unwin, Sydney, 1994, at

Clarke R. (1994c) 'Dataveillance by Governments: The Technique of Computer Matching' Information Technology & People 7,2 (June 1994) 46-84, at

Clarke R. (1994d) 'Human Identification in Information Systems: Management Challenges and Public Policy Issues' Info. Technology & People 7,4 (December 1994), at

Clarke R. (1997) 'Chip-Based ID: Promise and Peril' Proc. Int'l Conf. on Privacy, Montreal September 1997, at

Clarke R. (1999a) 'Anonymous, Pseudonymous and Identified Transactions: The Spectrum of Choice', Proc. IFIP User Identification & Privacy Protection Conference, Stockholm, June 1999, at

Clarke R. (1999b) 'Person-Location and Person-Tracking: Technologies, Risks and Policy Implications' Proc. 21st International Conf. Privacy and Personal Data Protection, Hong Kong, September 1999. Revised version published in Info. Techno. & People 14, 1 (2001) 206-231, at

Clarke R. (2001a) 'Biometrics and Privacy' Xamax Consultancy Pty Ltd, April 2001, at

Clarke R. (2001b) 'The Fundamental Inadequacies of Conventional Public Key Infrastructure' Proc. Conf. ECIS'2001, Bled, Slovenia, 27-29 June 2001, at

Clarke R. (2001c) 'Certainty of Identity: A Fundamental Misconception, and a Fundamental Threat to Security' Privacy Law & Policy Reporter 8, 3 (September 2001) 63-65, 68, at

Clarke R. (2001d) 'Authentication: A Sufficiently Rich Model to Enable e-Business' Xamax Consultancy Pty Ltd, December 2001, at

Clarke R. (2002a) 'Biometrics' Inadequacies and Threats, and the Need for Regulation' Xamax Consultancy Pty Ltd, April 2002, at

Clarke R. (2002b) 'The Mythology of Consumer Identity Authentication', Statement for a Panel Session on 'Understanding e-Business: Can we remain anonymous in the marketplace?' Proc. 24th Int'l Conf. of Data Protection & Privacy Commissioners, Cardiff UK, 9-11 September 2002, at

Clarke R. (2003a) 'Authentication Re-visited: How Public Key Infrastructure Could Yet Prosper' Proc. 16th Int'l eCommerce Conf., at Bled, Slovenia, 9-11 June 2003, at

Clarke R. (2003b) 'eAuthentication Realities: You want to authenticate what???' Presentation in 11 cities across Australia, July-October 2003, for the Australian Computer Society Professional Development Board, Xamax Consultancy Pty Ltd, August 2003, at

Clarke R. (2004a) 'Identification and Authentication Glossary' Xamax Consultancy Pty Ltd, extract from pp. 57-65 of 'Identity Management: The Technologies, Their Business Value, Their Problems, and Their Prospects' Xamax Consultancy Pty Ltd, March 2004, at

Clarke R. (2004b) 'Identification and Authentication Fundamentals' Xamax Consultancy Pty Ltd, May 2004, at

Clarke R. (2004c) 'Identity Management: The Technologies, Their Business Value, Their Problems, Their Prospects' Xamax Consultancy Pty Ltd, March 2004, at

Clarke R. (2005) 'Human-Artefact Hybridisation: Forms and Consequences' Proc. Ars Electronica 2005 Symposium on Hybrid - Living in Paradox, Linz, Austria, 2-3 September 2005, at

Clarke R. (2006) 'National Identity Schemes - The Elements' Xamax Consultancy Pty Ltd, February 2006, at

Clarke R. (2008a) '(Id)Entities (Mis)Management The Mythologies underlying the Business Failures' Xamax Consultancy Pty Ltd, Invited Keynote, Proc. Managing Identity in New Zealand, Wellington NZ, 29-30 April 2008, at

Clarke R. (2008b) 'You Are Where You've Been Location Technologies' Deep Privacy Impact' Invited Keynote at a Seminar on 'Location Privacy' at the University of N.S.W. on 23 July 2008, Xamax Consultancy Pty Ltd, at

Clarke R. (2009a) 'A Sufficiently Rich Model of (Id)entity, Authentication and Authorisation' Proc. IDIS 2009 - The 2nd Multidisciplinary Workshop on Identity in the Information Society, LSE, 5 June 2009, at

Clarke R. (2009b) 'Lessons from a Sufficiently Rich Model of (Id)entity, Authentication and Authorisation' Seminar at University of Toronto, Xamax Consultancy Pty Ltd, October 2009, at

Clarke R. & Wigan M. (2008) 'You Are Where You've Been Location Technologies' Deep Privacy Impact' Proc. Third Workshop on Social Implications of National Security, Canberra, 23-24 July 2008, in Michael K. & Michael M.G. (2008) 'Australia and the New Technologies: Evidence Based Policy in Public Administration' Research Network Secure Australia, July 2008, pp. 100-114, at

Author Affiliations

Roger Clarke is Principal of Xamax Consultancy Pty Ltd, Canberra. He is also a Visiting Professor in the Cyberspace Law & Policy Centre at the University of N.S.W., and a Visiting Professor in the Department of Computer Science at the Australian National University.

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The content and infrastructure for these community service pages are provided by Roger Clarke through his consultancy company, Xamax.

From the site's beginnings in August 1994 until February 2009, the infrastructure was provided by the Australian National University. During that time, the site accumulated close to 30 million hits. It passed 65 million in early 2021.

Sponsored by the Gallery, Bunhybee Grasslands, the extended Clarke Family, Knights of the Spatchcock and their drummer
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Created: 30 March 2008 - Last Amended: 15 February 2010 by Roger Clarke - Site Last Verified: 15 February 2009
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