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Roger Clarke's Surveys List

Reference List: Surveys of Privacy Attitudes

Roger Clarke **

Started in 1996, with revisions to 2006, another in 2008

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There appears to be no reference list of surveys of attitudes to privacy. This page draws together those that I've become aware of over the years. Please advise me of corrections, and of additional references!


Privacy attitudes are highly culturally dependent. And most surveys that have been conducted have been within national boundaries. The references are therefore provided grouped by country. Within country, they are in date order, most recent first. Particularly important publications are picked out with bold-face type.

The largest set of references is from the United States; so, to avoid the rest of them being visually swamped, I've used alpha sequence by country, which has the effect of putting the U.S. at the end:


King T. (2008) 'The Public Attitude Towards Privacy in Health Care' in 'Privacy issues in health care and security of statistical databases' PhD Dissertation, Uni of Newcastle, 2008, catalogued at

OFPC(2004) 'Research into Community attitudes towards Privacy in Australia', Office of the Federal Privacy Commissioner, May 2004, at

OVPC (2002) 'Privacy in Diverse Victoria: Research report into attitudes towards privacy in diverse communities' Report 02.02, October 2002 (PDF, 382Kb), at$FILE/DiverseVic.pdf

OFPC(2001a) 'Community attitudes towards privacy in Australia', Office of the Federal Privacy Commissioner, July 2001, at

OFPC(2001b) 'Business attitudes towards privacy in Australia', Office of the Federal Privacy Commissioner, July 2001, at

OFPC(2001c) 'Government attitudes towards privacy in Australia', Office of the Federal Privacy Commissioner, July 2001, at

PW (1998) 'Privacy Survey - 1998', Price Waterhouse, Melbourne, Contact Stephen Woolley, +61 3 9666 6307

PW (1996) 'Privacy Survey - 1996', Price Waterhouse, Melbourne, Contact Stephen Woolley, +61 3 9666 6307. A survey of the attitude of Australian businesses towards privacy, and toward privacy regulation.

Boykett J., O'Reilly H. and Tucker G. (1996) `Private sector attitudes to information privacy' Privacy Law & Policy Reporter 3, 6 (September 1996) 101-105, to be available from the PLPR archives

MasterCard (1996) 'Privacy and Payments: A Study of Attitudes of the Australian Public to Privacy - Summary and Findings', MasterCard International, Sydney, September 1996, reviewed at

ACFF (1995) 'Smart Cards and the Future of Your Money', Australian Commission for the Future, Melbourne

OFPC (1995) 'Community Attitudes to Privacy', Office of the Federal Privacy Commissioner, Information Paper No. 3, August 1995, +61 2 9284 9600, web-pages at

NSWPC (1975-) 'Annual Reports', N.S.W. Privacy Committee, Sydney, web-pages at


Ekos Research Associates (2001), Business Usage of Customer Information for Direct Marketing: What the Public Thinks, prepared on behalf of the Public Interest Advocacy Centre, Ottawa (?), August 2001, at

PIAC/FNACQ (1996) 'Surveying Boundaries : Canadians and their Personal Information' Public Interest Advocacy Centre (PIAC) and the Fédération Nationale des Associations de Consommateurs du Québec (FNACQ), Ottawa, ON., Canada, 1996, available from: PIAC, 1204 - One Nicholas St., Ottawa, ON., K1N 7B7. Tel: +1 613 562-4002; Fax: +1 613 562-0007; Email:; web-pages at

Graves F., Porteous N. & Beauchamp P. (1995) 'Privacy Revealed: The Canadian Privacy Survey' Ekos Research Associates, Ottawa, ON., Canada, 1995, available from Industry Canada, Communications Development and Planning Branch, 20th floor, General Tower North, 300 Slater St., Ottawa, ON, K1A 0C8; Tel: (613) 990-4573; Fax: (613) 941-0178; Email:

Harris/Westin (1995) 'The Equifax Canada Report on Consumers and Privacy in the Information Age' Equifax Canada, 1995

Harris/Westin (1992) 'The Equifax Canada Report on Consumers and Privacy in the Information Age' Equifax Canada, 1992

European Union

International Research Associates, Information Technology and Data Privacy, Eurobarometer 46.1, Report produced for the European Commission Directorate General Internal Market and Financial Seervices, Brussels: INRA, 1997.

Hong Kong

A long series of Opinion Surveys conducted for the Privacy Commissioner by John Bacon-Shone at Uni. of Hong Kong, since 1998


Ivan Skékely (ed.), Information Privacy in Hungary, Budapest: Hungarian Institute for Public Opinion Research, 1991


Kumaraguru P. & Cranor L. (2005) 'Privacy in India: Attitudes and Awareness' Proc. Workshop on Privacy Enhancing Technologies (PET2005), 30 May - 1 June 2005, Dubrovnik, Croatia, at

The Netherlands

J. Holvast, H. van Dijk & G. Schep, Privacy Doorgelicht. Onderzoeksrapport N. 71. s'Gravenhage, SWOKA, 1989.

United Kingdom

Hine C. & Eve J. (1998) 'Privacy in the marketplace' The Information Society 14, 4 (Oct-Nov 1998) 253-262

Perri 6, with Kristen Lasky & Adrian Fletcher, The Future of Privacy, Vol. 2, Public Trust in the Use of Private Information, London: Demos, 1998 [note the author's surname is the number '6'; this is not a misprint]

DPR (1996) 'Data Protection - General Public Survey' Data Protection Registrar, Wilmslow Cheshire, +44 1625 545 700

Henley Centre, Dataculture, London: Henley Centre for Forecasting, Ltd., 1995.

United States

This section lists important references that I'm aware of. Several additional lists below provide further references.

Zogby (2006) 'Voters Balance Privacy, Surveillance' (comparing public support for surveillance measures late 2005 cf. late 2001), at, mirrored here

PEW Internet Project (2000) 'Trust and Privacy Online: Why American Want to Rewrite the Rules', at

Culnan M.J. (1999) 'Georgetown Internet Privacy Policy Study', at

Culnan M. & Armstrong P.K. (1999) 'Information Privacy Concerns, Procedural Fairness and Impersonal Trust: An Empirical Investigation' Organization Science, Vol. 10, No. 1, p. 104-115, January-February 1999, at

Cranor L.F., Reagle J., and Mark S. Ackerman M.S. (1999) 'Beyond Concern: Understanding Net Users' Attitudes' AT&T Research Technical Report, 14 April 1999, at

Truste (1997) 'ETrust Internet Privacy Survey: Summary of Survey Results', TrustE, at

CDT (1997-) 'Privacy Survey Data', Center for Democracy and Technology, at

Smith H. J., Milberg S.J. & Burke, S.J. (1996) 'Information Privacy: Measuring Individuals' Concerns About Corporate Practices' MIS Quarterly, 20, 2, 167-196

Culnan M.J. (1995) 'Consumer Awareness of Name Removal Procedures: Implications for Direct Marketing' Journal of Direct Marketing, 9, 2, 10-19

ACLU (1994) 'American Public Opinion About Privacy at Home and at Work' American Civil Liberties Union, 1994, web-pages at

GVU (1994-) 'WWW User Survey', Graphics, Visualization & Usability Center, Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech), at

Cantril A.H. & Cantril S.D. (1994) 'Live and Let Live: American Public Opinion About Privacy at Home and at Work' American Civil Liberties Union, March 1994

Culnan M.J. (1993) '"How Did They Get My Name?": An Exploratory Investigation of Consumer Attitudes Toward Secondary Information Use' MIS Qtly 17, 3 (September 1993) 341-363

Gandy O.H.Jr. (1993a) 'The Panoptic Sort' Westview, 1993

Gandy O.H.Jr. (1993b) 'African Americans and Privacy: Understanding the Black Perspective in the Emerging Policy Debate' J. of Black Studies 24, 2 (December 1993) 178-195

Katz J.E. & Tassone A.R. (1990) 'Public Opinion Trends: Privacy and Information Technology' Public Opinion Qtly 54, 1 (Spring 1990) 125-143

Privacy Rights Clearinghouse (1993-) 'Annual Report' Uni. of San Diego Center for Public Interest Law, at

Singer E., Mathiowetz N.A. & Couper M.P (1993) 'The Impact of Privacy and Confidentiality Concerns on Survey Participation' Public Opinion Quarterly, 57, Winter, 465-482

Time (1991/92)

Tolchinsky P.D., McCuddy M.K., Adams J., Ganster D.C., Woodman R.W. & Fromkin H.L. 'Employee Perceptions of Invasion of Privacy: A Field Simulation Experiment' J. of Applied Psychology 66, 3 (June 1981) 308-313

Woodman R., Ganster D., Adams J., McCuddy M., Tolchinsky P., and Fromkin H. (1982) 'A Survey of Employee Perceptions of Information Privacy in Organizations' Academy of Management Journal. 1982, Vol. 25, No. 3, 647-663

Other Lists

Alan Westin's 'Privacy Exchange' site has a list of Opinion Surveys,, mirrored here

Alan Westin's 'Privacy Exchange' site also has a list of Empirical Studies,, mirrored here

EPIC maintains an archive of surveys of public attitudes towards Internet privacy, at

A long series of surveys has been heavily funded by industry and in particular the Equifax credit rating service. Alan Westin's Privacy and American Business is one source of heavily pro-business biased material, at But that page omits reference to at least the following pre-1997 surveys:


These references were contributed by a variety of people. Those that I can remember include Dave Banisar and Bob Gellman in Washington DC, Colin Bennett in Victoria BC, Beth Givens in San Diego, Lorrie Faith Cranor in Florham Park, NJ, John Gaudin in Sydney, Tim Dixon in Sydney, Lindy Smith in Melbourne, and Charles Raab in Edinburgh. Apologies to people whose offerings I've forgotten. Keep them coming!

Author Affiliations

Roger Clarke is Principal of Xamax Consultancy Pty Ltd, Canberra. He is also a Visiting Professor in the Cyberspace Law & Policy Centre at the University of N.S.W., a Visiting Professor in the E-Commerce Programme at the University of Hong Kong, and a Visiting Professor in the Department of Computer Science at the Australian National University.

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