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Roger Clarke's 'The Shape of PETs 2.0'

The Shape of PETs 2.0

Sketch of 28 October 2016

Proposed for presentation to the Doctoral College 'Privacy and Trust for Mobile Users', Technische Universität Darmstadt, on 28 November 2016

Roger Clarke **

© Xamax Consultancy Pty Ltd, 2016

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This document is at

The supporting slide-set is at


Privacy-Enhancing Technologies (PETs) have been an enormous disappointment. Even where legal and organisational safeguards have worked effectively, technological inadequacies have undermined the three-component regulatory framework.

This presentation identifies PETs' multiple failures, across the many areas of conception, requirements elicitation, architecture, design, dissemination, understandability, adoption and use. However, the insights into these failures are now leading towards a new round of products and services. PETs 2.0 promise to at last achieve the necessary breakthrough into the mainstream. A test-case is considered - the expression and enforcement of consents and denials - in order to apply the insights in a specific area of need.


Clarke R. (2001) 'Introducing PITs and PETs: Technologies Affecting Privacy' Privacy Law & Policy Reporter 7, 9 (March 2001), PrePrint at

Clarke R. (2001) 'The Origins of 'PIT' and 'PET'', Xamax Consultancy Pty Ltd, April 2001, at

Clarke R. (2008) 'Business Cases for Privacy-Enhancing Technologies' Chapter 7 in Subramanian R. (Ed.) 'Computer Security, Privacy and Politics: Current Issues, Challenges and Solutions' IDEA Group, 2008, pp. 135-155, PrePrint at, esp. ss. 4 and 5

APF (2012) 'Policy Statement on Information Security' Australian Privacy Foundation, December 2012, at

Clarke R. (2014) 'Key Factors in the Limited Adoption of End-User PETs' Panel-Session on 'Using Technologies: How Can We Better Promote Useable, Effective Privacy-Enhancing / Anti-Surveillance Technologies?' Politics of Surveillance Workshop, University of Ottawa, 8-10 May 2014, at

Clarke R. (2014) 'How to Promote PET Usage' Notes for a Panel on 'What are the key factors that can promote effective use of PETs?', Politics of Surveillance Workshop, University of Ottawa, 10 May 2014, at

Clarke R. (2015) 'The Prospects of Easier Security for SMEs and Consumers' Computer Law & Security Review 31, 4 (August 2015) 538-552
PrePrint at

Clarke R. (2016) 'Can We Productise Secure eWorking Environments?' Workshop Resources for 11th IFIP Summer School on Privacy and Identity Management, 21-26 August 2016, Karlstad, Sweden, Xamax Consultancy Pty Ltd, August 2016, at

Consents and Denials

Clarke R. (2002) 'Consumer Consent in Electronic Health Data Exchange: Catalogue of Cases' Department of Health and Aged Care, 23 May 2002, mirrored at

Clarke R. (2002) 'e-Consent: A Critical Element of Trust in e-Business' Proc. 15th Bled Electronic Commerce Conference, Bled, Slovenia, 17-19 June 2002, PrePrint at

Clarke R. (2002) 'Consumer Consent in Electronic Health Data Exchange: Background Paper' Department of Health and Aged Care, 1 December 2002, mirrored at

Clarke R. (2002) 'Consumer Consent in Electronic Health Data Exchange: Implementation Considerations' Department of Health and Aged Care, 1 December 2002, mirrored at

Coiera E. & Clarke R. (2004) ''e-Consent': The Design and Implementation of Consumer Consent Mechanisms in an Electronic Environment' J. Amer. Medical Informatics Assoc. 11 , 2 (March/April 2004) 129-140, mirrored at

O'Keefe C.M., Greenfield P. & Goodchild A. (2005) 'A Decentralised Approach to Electronic Consent and Health Information Access Control' Journal of Research and Practice in Information Technology 37, 2 (May 2005) 161-178, at

Author Affiliations

Roger Clarke is Principal of Xamax Consultancy Pty Ltd, Canberra. He is also a Visiting Professor in Cyberspace Law & Policy at the University of N.S.W., and a Visiting Professor in the Computer Science at the Australian National University.

He has been a Board-member of the world's longest-serving privacy advocacy organisation, the Australian Privacy Foundation, since its formation in 1987, and served as its Chair 2006-14. He was awarded the second-ever Australian Privacy Medal in 2009, the first having gone to Justice Michael Kirby. According to Google Scholar, his published articles on privacy topics have to date attracted over 4,500 citations.

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The content and infrastructure for these community service pages are provided by Roger Clarke through his consultancy company, Xamax.

From the site's beginnings in August 1994 until February 2009, the infrastructure was provided by the Australian National University. During that time, the site accumulated close to 30 million hits. It passed 65 million in early 2021.

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Created: 27 October 2016 - Last Amended: 28 October 2016 by Roger Clarke - Site Last Verified: 15 February 2009
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