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Roger Clarke's 'Location and Tracking of Mobiles'

Location and Tracking of Mobile Devices

Notes of 9 January 2014

For presentation in the University of Southampton Faculty of Law, 27 January 2014

Roger Clarke **

Based on research conducted with Katina Michael

© Xamax Consultancy Pty Ltd, 2014

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This document is at http://www.rogerclarke.com/DV/LTMD-1401.html

The supporting slide-set is at http://www.rogerclarke.com/DV/LTMD-1401.pdf


Abstract

Mobile cellular and wireless data networks are providing capabilities that are much-appreciated by users. Location-awareness has been added, exploiting features inherent to network management, through self-reporting by applications running in smartphones that are equipped with onboard global positioning system (GPS) chipsets, and using some further techniques. This benefits users, but also provides a wealth of highly-sensitive data about every device-user.

This presentation identifies the threats involved in the location and tracking of people, by government agencies, by corporations, and by other individuals. It considers natural controls that may keep abuses within bounds, the extent to which existing regulatory arrangements are adequate, and what measures may be needed to protect against the threats to personal safety and behavioural and experiential privacy.


Primary Reference

Michael K. & Clarke R. (2013) '' Computer Law & Security Review 29, 3 (June 2013) 216-228, PrePrint at http://www.rogerclarke.com/DV/LTMD.html

Additional References

Abbas R. (2011) 'The social and behavioural implications of location-based services: An observational study of users' Journal of Location Based Services, 5, 3-4 (December 2011)

Abbas R., Michael K., Michael m.g. & Aloudat A. (2011) 'Emerging forms of covert surveillance using GPS-enabled devices', Journal of Cases on Information Technology, 13, 2 (2011) 19-33

Art. 29 (2011) 'Opinion 13/2011 on Geolocation services on smart mobile devices' Article 29 Data Protection Working Party , 881/11/EN WP 185, 16 May 2011, at http://ec.europa.eu/justice/policies/privacy/docs/wpdocs/2011/wp185_en.pdf

Blumberg A.J. & Eckersley P. (2009) 'On locational privacy, and how to avoid losing it forever' Electronic Frontier Foundation, August 2009, at https://www.eff.org/wp/locational-privacy

Clarke R. (1988) 'Information technology and dataveillance', Communications of the ACM, 31(5), May 1988, pp498-512, at http://www.rogerclarke.com/DV/CACM88.html

Clarke R. (1994) 'The Digital Persona and its Application to Data Surveillance' The Information Society 10,2 (June 1994) 77-92, at http://www.rogerclarke.com/DV/DigPersona.html

Clarke R. (1996) 'Privacy and Dataveillance, and Organisational Strategy' Proc. I.S. Audit & Control Association (EDPAC'96), Perth, Western Australia, May 1996, at http://www.rogerclarke.com/DV/PStrat.html

Clarke R. (2000) 'Submission to the Commonwealth Attorney-General re: 'A privacy scheme for the private sector: Release of Key Provisions' of 14 December 1999' Xamax Consultancy Pty Ltd, January 2000, at http://www.anu.edu.au/people/Roger.Clarke/DV/PAPSSub0001.html

Clarke R. (2001) 'Person-Location and Person-Tracking: Technologies, Risks and Policy Implications' Information Technology & People 14, 2 (Summer 2001) 206-231, at http://www.rogerclarke.com/DV/PLT.html

Clarke R. (2002) 'e-Consent: A Critical Element of Trust in e-Business' Proc. 15th Bled Electronic Commerce Conference, Bled, Slovenia, June 2002, at http://www.rogerclarke.com/EC/eConsent.html

Clarke R. (2006a) 'What's 'Privacy'?' Xamax Consultancy Pty Ltd, August 2006, at http://www.rogerclarke.com/DV/Privacy.html

Clarke R. (2006b) 'Make Privacy a Strategic Factor - The Why and the How' Cutter IT Journal 19, 11 (October 2006), at http://www.rogerclarke.com/DV/APBD-0609.html

Clarke R. (2008) 'Dissidentity: The Political Dimension of Identity and Privacy' Identity in the Information Society 1, 1 (December, 2008) 221-228, at http://www.rogerclarke.com/DV/Dissidentity.html

Clarke R. (2009b) 'A Sufficiently Rich Model of (Id)entity, Authentication and Authorisation' Proc. IDIS 2009 - The 2nd Multidisciplinary Workshop on Identity in the Information Society, LSE, 5 June 2009, at http://www.rogerclarke.com/ID/IdModel-090605.html

Clarke R. (2009c) 'A Framework for Surveillance Analysis' Xamax Consultancy Pty Ltd, August 2009, at http://www.rogerclarke.com/DV/FSA.html

Clarke R. (2010) 'What is Überveillance? (And What Should Be Done About It?)' IEEE Technology and Society 29, 2 (Summer 2010) 17-25, at http://www.rogerclarke.com/DV/RNSA07.html

Clarke R. & Wigan M. (2011) 'You are where you've been: The privacy implications of location and tracking technologies' Journal of Location Based Services 5, 3-4 (December 2011) 138-155, PrePrint at http://www.rogerclarke.com/DV/YAWYB-CWP.html

Cleff E.B. (2007) 'Implementing the legal criteria of meaningful consent in the concept of mobile advertising' Computer Law & Security Review 23,2 (2007) 262-269

Cleff E.B. (2010) 'Effective approaches to regulate mobile advertising: Moving towards a coordinated legal, self-regulatory and technical response' Computer Law & Security Review 26, 2 (2010) 158-169

Collier K. (2011a) 'Stores spy on shoppers', Herald Sun, 12 October 2011, at http://www.heraldsun.com.au/news/more-news/stores-spy-on-shoppers/story-fn7x8me2-1226164244739

Collier K. (2011b) 'Shopping centres' Big Brother plan to track customers', Herald Sun, 14 October 2011, at http://www.heraldsun.com.au/news/more-news/shopping-centres-big-brother-plan-to-track-customers/story-fn7x8me2-1226166191503

Collier K. (2011c) ''Creepy' Path Intelligence retail technology tracks shoppers', news.com.au, 14 October 2011, at http://www.news.com.au/money/creepy-retail-technology-tracks-shoppers/story-e6frfmci-1226166413071

Dobson J. & Fisher P. (2003) 'Geoslavery' IEEE Technology and Society 22 (2003) 47-52, cited in Raper et al. (2007)

EU (2002) 'Directive 2002/58/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 12 July 2002 concerning the processing of personal data and the protection of privacy in the electronic communications sector (Directive on privacy and electronic communications)' Official Journal L 201 , 31/07/2002 P. 0037 - 0047, European Commission, at http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:32002L0058:en:HTML

Fusco S.J., Abbas R., Michael K. & Aloudat A. (2012) 'Location-Based Social Networking and its Impact on Trust in Relationships' IEEE Technology and Society Magazine 31,2 (Summer 2012) 39-50, at http://works.bepress.com/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1326&context=kmichael

King N.J. & Jessen P.W. (2010) 'Profiling the mobile customer - Privacy concerns when behavioural advertisers target mobile phones' Computer Law & Security Review 26, 5 (2010) 455-478 and 26, 6 (2010) 595-612

Mautz R. (2011) 'Overview of Indoor Positioning Technologies' Keynote, Proc. IPIN'2011, Guimaraes, September 2011, at http://www.geometh.ethz.ch/people/.../IPIN_Keynote_Mautz_2011.pdf

Mery D. (2009) 'The mobile phone as self-inflicted surveillance - And if you don't have one, what have you got to hide?' The Register, 10 April 2009, at http://www.theregister.co.uk/2009/04/10/mobile_phone_tracking/

Michael K. & Michael M.G. (2007) 'From Dataveillance to Überveillance and the Realpolitik of the Transparent Society' University of Wollongong, 2007, at http://works.bepress.com/kmichael/51

Michael K. & Michael M.G. (2009) 'Innovative Automatic Identification and Location-Based Services: From Bar Codes to Chip Implants' IGI Global, 2009

Michael M.G. & Michael K. (2010) 'Towards a state of uberveillance' IEEE Technology and Society Magazine 29, 2 (Summer 2010) 9-16, at http://works.bepress.com/kmichael/187

Michael K., McNamee A., Michael M.G. & Tootell H. (2006a) 'Location-Based Intelligence - Modeling Behavior in Humans using GPS' Proc. Int'l Symposium on Technology and Society, New York, 8-11 June 2006, at http://ro.uow.edu.au/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1384&context=infopapers

Michael K., McNamee A. & Michael M.G. (2006b) 'The Emerging Ethics of Humancentric GPS Tracking and Monitoring' Proc. Int'l Conf. on Mobile Business, Copenhagen, Denmark IEEE Computer Society, 2006, at http://ro.uow.edu.au/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1384&context=infopapers

Michael K. & Masters A. (2006) 'Realized Applications of Positioning Technologies in Defense Intelligence' in Hussein Abbass H. & Essam D. (eds.) 'Applications of Information Systems to Homeland Security and Defense' Idea Group Publishing, 2006, at PI (2010a) 'Our Commitment to Privacy', Path Intelligence, 2010, heading changed in late 2012 to 'Privacy by design', at http://www.pathintelligence.com/en/products/footpath/privacy

PI (2010b) 'FootPath Technology', Path Intelligance, 2010, at http://www.pathintelligence.com/en/products/footpath/footpath-technology

PI (2012) 'Retail' Path Intelligence, 2012, at http://www.pathintelligence.com/en/industries/retail

van Loenen B., Zevenbergen J. & de Jong J. (2009) 'Balancing Location Privacy with National Security: A Comparative Analysis of Three Countries through the Balancing Framework of the European Court Of Human Rights' Ch. 2 of Patten N.J. et al. 'National Security: Institutional Approaches', Nova Science Publishers, 2009


Author Affiliations

Roger Clarke is Principal of Xamax Consultancy Pty Ltd, Canberra. He is also a Visiting Professor in the Cyberspace Law & Policy Centre at the University of N.S.W., and a Visiting Professor in the Research School of Computer Science at the Australian National University. He is currently Chair of the Australian Privacy Foundation, and an Advisory Board member of Privacy International.

Katina Michael is an Associate Professor in the School of Information Systems and Technology at the University of Wollongong. She is the editor in chief of the IEEE Technology and Society Magazine, is on the editorial board of Computers & Security, and is a co-editor of 'Social Implications of Covert Policing' (2010). She is a Board member of the Australian Privacy Foundation and a representative of the Consumer Federation of Australia.



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Created: 6 January 2014 - Last Amended: 9 January 2014 by Roger Clarke - Site Last Verified: 15 February 2009
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