1J. Boyle, Shamans, Software, and Spleens, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 1996, p. 38.


F. Machlup, The Production and Distribution of Knowledge in the United States, Princeton University Press, Princeton, 1962; M. Porat, The Information Economy, US Department of Commerce, Washington, 1977; C. Jonscher, `Information Resources and Economic Productivity', Information Economics and Policy, 1, 1983, pp. 13-35.

[3] S.M. Besen, and L.J. Raskind, `An Introduction to the Law and Economics of Intellectual Property', Journal of Economic Perspectives, 5, 1991, p. 3.

[4] Ricketson, S., The Law of Intellectual Property, Law Book Company, Sydney, 1984, pp. 425-426.

[5] K.J. Arrow, `Economic Welfare and the Allocation of Resources for Invention' in National Bureau of Economic Research, The Rate and Direction of Inventive Activity: Economic and Social Factors, Princeton University Press, Princeton, 1962, pp. 609 - 625.

6 Ibid p. 614.

[7] Ibid p. 615.

[8] H. Demsetz, `Information and Efficiency: Another Viewpoint', Journal of Law and Economics, 12, 1970, pp. 1-22.

[9] e.g. K.W. Dam, `The Economic Underpinnings of Patent Law', Journal of Legal Studies, 23, 1994, pp. 247-271.

[10] M. Polyani, Knowing and Being, Routledge and Kegan Paul, London, 196`4, p. 195.

[11] F. Machlup, `Optimum Utilization of Knowledge', Knowledge, Information and Decisions: Society, 20, 1982, p. 10.

[12] D.M. Lamberton, S. Macdonald, and T.D. Mandeville, `Information and Technological Change - A Research Program in Retrospect' in P. Hall (ed.) Technology, Innovation and Economic Polic, Philip Allan, Oxford, 1982, p. 231.

[13] Arrow, op. cit at p. 618. This theme is not pursued, however, and Arrow disposes of it as simply compounding the appropriability problem.

[14] P. Monk, Technological Change in the Information Economy, Pinter Publishers, London, 1989, pp. 87-92.

[15] M. Pendleton, `Intellectual Property, Information-based Society and a New International Economic Order - the Policy Options?', European Intellectual Property Review, 2, 1985, p. 31.

[16] S. Scotchmer, `Standing on the Shoulders of Giants: Cumulative Research and the Patent Law', Journal of Economic Perspectives, 5, 1991, p. 29.

[17] S. Ricketson, `New Wine into Old Bottles: Technological Change and Intellectual Property Rights', Prometheus, 10, 1992, p. 53.

[18] T.D. Mandeville, Understanding Novelty: Information, Technological Change, and the Patent System, Ablex, New Jersey, 1996, p. 42.

[19] J. Schumpeter, Capitalism, Socialism, and Democracy, 3rd Ed, Harper, New York, 1950.

[20] Mandeville, op. cit., p. 46.

[21] C. Antonelli, `The Economic Theory of Information Networks' in C. Antonelli (ed), The Economics of Information Networks, Elsevier Science Publishers:, New York, 1992, p. 5.

[22] S.C. Salop, and D.T. Scheffman, `Cost-Raising Strategies'. Journal of Industrial Economics, 36, 1987, p. 19.